Degenerative disk disease is when normal changes that take place in the disks of your spine cause pain.
Spinal disks are like shock absorbers between the vertebrae, or bones, of your spin. They help your back stay flexible, so you can bend and twist. As you get older, they can show signs of wear and tear. They begin to break down and may not work as well.
Nearly everyone’s disks break down over time, but not everyone feels pain. If worn-out spinal disks are the reason you’re hurting, you have degenerative disk disease.
In between each vertebra are shock-absorbing discs, known as spinal discs or intervertebral discs. They cushion your vertebrae and allow your back to bend, flex, and twist. The outer part of a disc is firm and contains nerves, so a bulge or tear can be very painful. If the jellylike interior leaks out, you could hurt even more.
Your spinal disks are made up of a soft inner core and a tough outer wall. The disks change in ways that may cause degenerative disk disease, such as:
Dry out. When you’re born, the disks in your spine are mostly made up of water. As you age, they lose water and get thinner. Flatter disks can’t absorb shocks as well. The water loss also means less cushion or padding between your vertebrae. This can lead to other problems in your spine that may cause pain
Crack. The stress of everyday movements and minor injuries over the years can cause tiny tears in the outer wall, which contains nerves. Any tears near the nerves can become painful. And if the wall breaks down, the disk’s soft core may push through the cracks. The disk may bulge, or slip out of place, which is called a slipped or herniated disk. It can affect nearby nerves..
You’ll probably feel a sharp or constant pain in your back and neck. Your exact symptoms depend on where the weak disk is and other changes it has caused.
Common signs include pain that: